利物浦vs沃特福德视频: 沃特福德vs南安普顿

2013年經濟學人 有廢鐵嗎?

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Science and technology

科學與技術

Water purification

水的凈化

Any old iron?

有廢鐵嗎?

A little-known chemical may provide a new way to clean water

一種鮮為人知的化學物質可能為清潔水源帶來一線希望

IRON in water is normally regarded a pollutant1.

水中的鐵原子通常被認為是一種污染源。

Luke Daly, the boss of Ferrate Treatment Technologies of Orlando, Florida, however, plans to turn that thought on its head.

然而,弗羅里達州奧蘭多高鐵酸鹽技術處理所所長Luke Daly,計劃顛倒這一認知。

He intends to use a chemically unusual form of iron to clean water up, not make it dirty.

他將利用鐵原子的一種非通?;翁淳換?,而非污染水源。

Iron is found in the part of the periodic table known as the transition metals.

鐵是化學元素周期表中的一部分,也被熟知為過渡金屬。

Like all metals, these react with other elements by giving up electrons to form positively2 charged ions.

像所有的金屬一樣,鐵原子與其他元素反應,釋放電子形成帶正電的離子。

Transition metals, though, give up different numbers of electrons in different circumstances, and thus have ions of various charges.

但過渡金屬在不同的情況下釋放不同數量的電子,因此就形成樂攜帶不同數目正電的離子。

Usually, iron loses two or three electrons.

通常情況下,鐵原子喪失2-3個電子。

But in ferrates, which are compounds of iron and oxygen with non-transition metals like sodium3 and calcium4, it loses six.

但是在高鐵酸鹽中是鐵原子、氧原子以及非過渡金屬如納原子、鈣原子的化合物,它失去了6個電子。

That makes ferrates extremely reactive, and it is this reactivity which Mr Daly hopes to exploit.

這使得高鐵酸鹽極其具有活性,而這也是Daly先生希望挖掘出的活性。

First, ferrates are strong oxidising agents.

首先,高鐵酸鹽是強氧化劑。

That means they destroy bacteria and viruses, and break up organic molecules5 with alacrity6.

也就是說,它們能夠破壞細菌和病毒,并能迅速分解有機分子。

Second, they are coagulants and flocculating agents.

其次,它們也是凝結劑和絮凝劑,

They attract other chemicals in the water, including dissolved metals, and precipitate7 them for easy removal.

吸引水中其他的化學物質并生成沉淀就可以毫不費力的去除掉。

Moreover, once it has done its job, the iron in ferrates precipitates8 too, as iron oxide9, leaving pure water behind.

此外,當它的使命結束后,高鐵酸鹽中的鐵離子也會以氧化鐵的形式沉淀,過濾后就是潔凈的水了。

The reason these wonder materials have not been used as water purifiers before is that their reactivity makes them unstable10 and thus difficult to store.

先前這些神奇的物質并沒有用來做水源凈化劑,因為它們的活性使得本身不穩定,也難以儲存。

Thomas Waite of the Florida Institute of Technology, an academic scientist on whose work the company has drawn11, jokes that in the early days of his research he kept the whole world's supply of ferrates in a cabinet in his laboratory.

佛羅里達理工學院的理論科學家Thomas Waite,開玩笑的說,在他的早期研究中,當年全世界量的高鐵酸鹽供應量都在他的實驗室櫥柜中。

Ferrate Treatment Technologies' trick is to make ferrates on site, for instant use, rather than attempting to transport them to where they are needed.

高鐵酸鹽技術處理所所玩的戲法就是將高鐵酸鹽現場即用,而非運送到異地再使用。

The firm's Ferrator uses three cheap raw materials—bleach, ferric chloride and caustic12 soda—to produce sodium and calcium ferrate at a price competitive, in terms of oxidising power, with more familiar water-cleaners like chlorine and ozone13.

公司的高鐵酸鹽系統是用三種便宜的原材料—漂白劑、氯化鐵以及氫氧化鈉—來制造高鐵酸鈉和高鐵酸鈣,并使其價格,在氧化效果來看,媲美于氯水和臭氧這類的水源清潔劑。

A machine small enough to be carried around in a pickup14 truck, Mr Daly claims, could generate enough ferrates to purify 75m litres of water a day.

Daly先生稱,一個足以讓小貨車攜帶的小型機器,能夠制造出足夠的高鐵酸鹽一天凈化7500萬公升的水。

The system is now being tested at two plants in Florida.

這套系統現正在接受位于弗羅里達州兩座工廠的測試。

If all goes well, the first commercial Ferrators will be up and running later this year.

如果一切正常的話,第一個商業性高鐵酸鹽系統將建立并且于年后投入運營。

詞語解釋

1.chemical n.藥品;化學物

The government has banned the use of chemical weapons.

政府已經禁止使用化學武器。

2.pollutant n.污染物質

The strategy specifies15 the maximum concentration of a pollutant which is allowed to be emitted.

這個策略確定了一種允許排放的污染物質的最高濃度。

3.periodic a.周期的;定期的

Long long ago, we knew the periodic motion of a planet.

很久以前, 我們就知道行星的周期運動。

4.transition n.轉變;過渡

Such a sudden transition must affect her.

這樣的一個突然變化一定會影響她。

5.electron n.電子

Let us return to electron waves now.

現在我們再回到電子波上來。


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 pollutant N1Zzy     
n.污染物質,散布污染物質者
參考例句:
  • Coal itself is a heavy pollutant.煤本身就是一種嚴重的污染物。
  • Carbon dioxide may not be a typical air pollutant.二氧化碳可能不是一種典型的污染物。
2 positively vPTxw     
adv.明確地,斷然,堅決地;實在,確實
參考例句:
  • She was positively glowing with happiness.她滿臉幸福。
  • The weather was positively poisonous.這天氣著實討厭。
3 sodium Hrpyc     
n.(化)鈉
參考例句:
  • Out over the town the sodium lights were lit.在外面,全城的鈉光燈都亮了。
  • Common salt is a compound of sodium and chlorine.食鹽是鈉和氯的復合物。
4 calcium sNdzY     
n.鈣(化學符號Ca)
參考例句:
  • We need calcium to make bones.我們需要鈣來壯骨。
  • Calcium is found most abundantly in milk.奶含鈣最豐富。
5 molecules 187c25e49d45ad10b2f266c1fa7a8d49     
分子( molecule的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • The structure of molecules can be seen under an electron microscope. 分子的結構可在電子顯微鏡下觀察到。
  • Inside the reactor the large molecules are cracked into smaller molecules. 在反應堆里,大分子裂變為小分子。
6 alacrity MfFyL     
n.敏捷,輕快,樂意
參考例句:
  • Although the man was very old,he still moved with alacrity.他雖然很老,動作仍很敏捷。
  • He accepted my invitation with alacrity.他欣然接受我的邀請。
7 precipitate 1Sfz6     
adj.突如其來的;vt.使突然發生;n.沉淀物
參考例句:
  • I don't think we should make precipitate decisions.我認為我們不應該貿然作出決定。
  • The king was too precipitate in declaring war.國王在宣戰一事上過于輕率。
8 precipitates e830548bc11fe12d5fa66bfa716886b7     
v.(突如其來地)使發生( precipitate的第三人稱單數 );促成;猛然摔下;使沉淀
參考例句:
  • Water precipitates camphor from its alcoholic solution. 水能把樟腦從其酒精溶液中淀析出來。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Precipitates are usually collected by centrifugation at intervals. 常常是用離心法分段收集沉淀的。 來自辭典例句
9 oxide K4dz8     
n.氧化物
參考例句:
  • Oxide is usually seen in our daily life.在我們的日常生活中氧化物很常見。
  • How can you get rid of this oxide coating?你們該怎樣除去這些氧化皮?
10 unstable Ijgwa     
adj.不穩定的,易變的
參考例句:
  • This bookcase is too unstable to hold so many books.這書櫥很不結實,裝不了這么多書。
  • The patient's condition was unstable.那患者的病情不穩定。
11 drawn MuXzIi     
v.拖,拉,拔出;adj.憔悴的,緊張的
參考例句:
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的風景所吸引。
12 caustic 9rGzb     
adj.刻薄的,腐蝕性的
參考例句:
  • He opened his mouth to make a caustic retort.他張嘴開始進行刻薄的反擊。
  • He enjoys making caustic remarks about other people.他喜歡挖苦別人。
13 ozone omQzBE     
n.臭氧,新鮮空氣
參考例句:
  • The ozone layer is a protective layer around the planet Earth.臭氧層是地球的?;げ?。
  • The capacity of ozone can adjust according of requirement.臭氧的產量可根據需要或調節。
14 pickup ANkxA     
n.拾起,獲得
參考例句:
  • I would love to trade this car for a pickup truck.我愿意用這輛汽車換一輛小型輕便卡車。||The luck guy is a choice pickup for the girls.那位幸運的男孩是女孩子們想勾搭上的人。
15 specifies 65fd0845f2dc2c4c95f87401e025e974     
v.指定( specify的第三人稱單數 );詳述;提出…的條件;使具有特性
參考例句:
  • The third clause of the contract specifies steel sashes for the windows. 合同的第三款指定使用鋼窗。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • The contract specifies red tiles, not slates, for the roof. 合同規定屋頂用紅瓦,并非石板瓦。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
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