沃特福德徽章: 沃特福德vs南安普顿

2013年經濟學人 一個不那么難的移植

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Science and technology

科學和技術

Medical technology

醫療技術

A not-so-hard graft1

一個不那么難的移植

Transplantable blood vessels3 can now be grown as desired

可移植的血管現可隨意培育

The old-fashioned way

古老的方式

ANOTHER advance in the emerging technology of regenerative medicine has just been announced.

新興再生醫學技術的又一項進展剛剛被公布。

It should soon be possible to make blood vessels that can be stored and used off the shelf for surgery that requires arteries4 or veins6 to be bypassed.

該項技術應該不久就可能制造血管,這種血管可以儲存,需要進行繞過動靜脈的外科手術時可以現貨供應。

The vessels, prototypes of which are described this week in a paper in Science Translational Medicine, are made by Humacyte, a small firm based in Durham, North Carolina, that was founded by Shannon Dahl, the paper's principal author, and two colleagues.

本周《科學轉化醫學》上的一篇論文描述了這種血管的原型,它是由北卡羅來納州達勒姆的一家小公司Humacyte制造的,而公司的創立者為該論文的主要作者夏倫?達爾和其兩位同事。

The recipe Dr Dahl and her colleagues concocted8 begins with smooth-muscle cells.

達爾博士及其同事的制做方法是由平滑肌細胞開始。

Smooth muscle is different from the familiar sort that cloaks bones and enables bodily movement.

平滑肌不同于我們熟悉的那種包覆骨骼并使身體運動的肌肉。

It is a component9 of organs such as the gut10 and the blood vessels that sometimes need to change shape while they are functioning.

它是腸道和血管等器官的組成部分,這些器官有時需要改變形狀才能行使功能。

To make artificial blood vessels the team took smooth-muscle cells from fresh corpses11 and cultured them on tubular scaffolds made of a material called polyglycolic acid.

為了制造人造血管,這個小組從新鮮尸體上采集平滑肌細胞,將其放在聚羥基乙酸材料制成的管式支架上培養。

Grown this way, smooth muscle secretes12 collagen, a structural13 protein that is, among several other things in the body, an important component of the walls of blood vessels.

采取這種方式生長,平滑肌可分泌膠原,一種結構蛋白,是人體中除其它幾種物質外組成血管壁的重要成分。

The polyglycolic acid degrades spontaneously over the course of a few weeks with the consequence that it is, in effect, replaced by the collagen.

聚羥基乙酸在幾個星期內自發降解,實際結果就是被膠原蛋白取代了。

The result is a tube of the length and diameter of the original scaffold, that is composed of collagen and smooth-muscle cells—a structure similar to a natural blood vessel2.

所得物保持原來支架的長度和直徑,由膠原蛋白和平滑肌細胞組成,其結構類似天然血管。

Transplanting that into a patient, however, would risk provoking an immune reaction, since the muscle cells are foreign tissue.

不過將其移植到患者身上會有引發免疫反應的風險,因為人造血管上的肌肉細胞是外來組織。

To get around this, Dr Dahl and her colleagues wash the muscle cells away with a detergent14, leaving just the collagen.

為了避免這個問題,達爾博士和其同事用洗滌劑洗去這些肌肉細胞,只留下膠原蛋白。

Though the end product is a nonliving simulacrum of a blood vessel rather than an artificial version of the real, biologically active thing, experiments on animals suggest that it works well enough to substitute for a diseased natural vessel.

雖然最終產品是無生命的模擬血管,而不是真正的、具有生物活性的人造血管,但是動物實驗表明,它足以代替患病的天然血管。

It can also act as a tap from which the blood of people whose kidneys have failed might be drawn15 for dialysis.

它也可以充當腎病患者龍頭,引出患者的血液進行透析。

At the moment, the optons for either of these things are limited.

目前,適合這些用途的任一用途的血管選擇都很有限。

The best approach is to use a length of vessel taken from elsewhere in the patient's body.

最好的方法就是采用來自病患身體其它部位的一段血管。

But that requires such transplants to be healthy themselves—and each length of transplanted vessel can be used only once.

但這要求這樣的移植對患者無害,而且每根移植的血管只能使用一次。

Synthetic16 vessels made of Teflon exist, but they are prone17 to infection and blockage18 by blood clots19, and tend to work for only a few months.

現已存在聚四氟乙烯制成的人造血管,但它們很容易感染和形成血栓,且往往只能起幾個月的作用。

The animal experiments suggest the new, all-collagen vessels are capable of lasting20 at least a year without noticeable deterioration21.

動物實驗表明,新型全膠原蛋白的血管有能力至少維持一年而沒有明顯惡化。

They are also, once implanted, able to remodel22 themselves in ways that improve their function—changing shape in response to blood flow, being colonised by cells from the patient's body, and showing signs of incorporating elastin, another structural protein found in natural vessels.

一旦植入,它們也能按照提高其功能的方式自我改造—針對血流改變形狀,讓病患的身體細胞在其上生長,并顯示出混合了天然血管中發現的另一個結構蛋白彈性蛋白的跡象。

Also, if kept in a suitable saline buffer23 at 4°C, they can be transplanted a year after they were made without a perceptible degradation24 of their properties.

此外,如果保存在4 ° C合適的鹽水緩沖液中,它們可以在制成一年后被移植,而沒有可察覺的性能退化。

So, if human trials confirm these results, the surgical-repairer's toolkit will have acquired a useful additional instrument—and the age of the cyborg will be just that little bit nearer.

所以,如果人體試驗證實了這些結果,外科修復師的工具包就會增添一個有用的額外工具,且生控體系統時代的來臨就又接近了一點點。

詞語解釋

1.vessel n.容器;器皿

The simplest calorimeter is a metal vessel used with a thermometer.

最簡單的量熱計是一個帶溫度計的金屬容器。

2.surgery n.外科手術;外科

He is preparing for the surgery.

他正在做手術前的準備。

3.vein5 n.靜脈;紋理;葉脈

The doctor injects glucose25 into the patient's vein.

醫生把葡萄糖注射入病人的靜脈。

4.describe v.描述;說成

The police asked me to describe exactly how it happened.

警察讓我描述一下這事是怎樣發生的。

5.concoct7 v.捏造;調制

And they had taken me so long to concoct.

我花了好長時間編造這些謊言。


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 graft XQBzg     
n.移植,嫁接,艱苦工作,貪污;v.移植,嫁接
參考例句:
  • I am having a skin graft on my arm soon.我馬上就要接受手臂的皮膚移植手術。
  • The minister became rich through graft.這位部長透過貪污受賄致富。
2 vessel 4L1zi     
n.船舶;容器,器皿;管,導管,血管
參考例句:
  • The vessel is fully loaded with cargo for Shanghai.這艘船滿載貨物駛往上海。
  • You should put the water into a vessel.你應該把水裝入容器中。
3 vessels fc9307c2593b522954eadb3ee6c57480     
n.血管( vessel的名詞復數 );船;容器;(具有特殊品質或接受特殊品質的)人
參考例句:
  • The river is navigable by vessels of up to 90 tons. 90 噸以下的船只可以從這條河通過。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • All modern vessels of any size are fitted with radar installations. 所有現代化船只都有雷達裝置。 來自《現代漢英綜合大詞典》
4 arteries 821b60db0d5e4edc87fdf5fc263ba3f5     
n.動脈( artery的名詞復數 );干線,要道
參考例句:
  • Even grafting new blood vessels in place of the diseased coronary arteries has been tried. 甚至移植新血管代替不健康的冠狀動脈的方法都已經試過。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • This is the place where the three main arteries of West London traffic met. 這就是倫敦西部三條主要交通干線的交匯處。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
5 vein fi9w0     
n.血管,靜脈;葉脈,紋理;情緒;vt.使成脈絡
參考例句:
  • The girl is not in the vein for singing today.那女孩今天沒有心情唱歌。
  • The doctor injects glucose into the patient's vein.醫生把葡萄糖注射入病人的靜脈。
6 veins 65827206226d9e2d78ea2bfe697c6329     
n.紋理;礦脈( vein的名詞復數 );靜脈;葉脈;紋理
參考例句:
  • The blood flows from the capillaries back into the veins. 血從毛細血管流回靜脈。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • I felt a pleasant glow in all my veins from the wine. 喝過酒后我渾身的血都熱烘烘的,感到很舒服。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
7 concoct vOoz0     
v.調合,制造
參考例句:
  • I gave her a tip on how to concoct a new kind of soup.我教她配制一種新湯的訣竅。
  • I began to concoct explanations of my own.我開始思考自己的解釋。
8 concocted 35ea2e5fba55c150ec3250ef12828dd2     
v.將(尤指通常不相配合的)成分混合成某物( concoct的過去式和過去分詞 );調制;編造;捏造
參考例句:
  • The soup was concocted from up to a dozen different kinds of fish. 這種湯是用多達十幾種不同的魚熬制而成的。
  • Between them they concocted a letter. 他們共同策劃寫了一封信。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
9 component epSzv     
n.組成部分,成分,元件;adj.組成的,合成的
參考例句:
  • Each component is carefully checked before assembly.每個零件在裝配前都經過仔細檢查。
  • Blade and handle are the component parts of a knife.刀身和刀柄是一把刀的組成部分。
10 gut MezzP     
n.[pl.]膽量;內臟;adj.本能的;vt.取出內臟
參考例句:
  • It is not always necessary to gut the fish prior to freezing.冷凍魚之前并不總是需要先把內臟掏空。
  • My immediate gut feeling was to refuse.我本能的直接反應是拒絕。
11 corpses 2e7a6f2b001045a825912208632941b2     
n.死尸,尸體( corpse的名詞復數 )
參考例句:
  • The living soldiers put corpses together and burned them. 活著的戰士把尸體放在一起燒了。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Overhead, grayish-white clouds covered the sky, piling up heavily like decaying corpses. 天上罩滿了灰白的薄云,同腐爛的尸體似的沉沉的蓋在那里。 來自漢英文學 - 中國現代小說
12 secretes b951c7cca7237b8e550dc03599b78b6f     
v.(尤指動物或植物器官)分泌( secrete的第三人稱單數 );隱匿,隱藏
參考例句:
  • The pineal gland secretes melanin during times of relaxation and visualization. 松果體在放松時分泌黑色素是明白無誤的。 來自互聯網
  • For example, the archegonium (female organ) of the moss Funaria secretes sucrose. 例如蘚類頸卵器(雌性器官)分泌蔗糖。 來自互聯網
13 structural itXw5     
adj.構造的,組織的,建筑(用)的
參考例句:
  • The storm caused no structural damage.風暴沒有造成建筑結構方面的破壞。
  • The North American continent is made up of three great structural entities.北美大陸是由三個構造單元組成的。
14 detergent dm1zW     
n.洗滌劑;adj.有洗凈力的
參考例句:
  • He recommended a new detergent to me.他向我推薦一種新的洗滌劑。
  • This detergent can remove stubborn stains.這種去污劑能去除難洗的污漬。
15 drawn MuXzIi     
v.拖,拉,拔出;adj.憔悴的,緊張的
參考例句:
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的風景所吸引。
16 synthetic zHtzY     
adj.合成的,人工的;綜合的;n.人工制品
參考例句:
  • We felt the salesman's synthetic friendliness.我們感覺到那位銷售員的虛情假意。
  • It's a synthetic diamond.這是人造鉆石。
17 prone 50bzu     
adj.(to)易于…的,很可能…的;俯臥的
參考例句:
  • Some people are prone to jump to hasty conclusions.有些人往往作出輕率的結論。
  • He is prone to lose his temper when people disagree with him.人家一不同意他的意見,他就發脾氣。
18 blockage XRxyc     
n.障礙物;封鎖
參考例句:
  • The logical treatment is to remove this blockage.合理的治療方法就是清除堵塞物。
  • If the blockage worked,they could retreat with dignity.如果封鎖發生作用,他們可以體面地撤退。
19 clots fc228b79d0fbd8618ecc4cda442af0dd     
n.凝塊( clot的名詞復數 );血塊;蠢人;傻瓜v.凝固( clot的第三人稱單數 )
參考例句:
  • When you cut yourself, blood clots and forms a scab. 你割破了,血會凝固、結痂。 來自《簡明英漢詞典》
  • Milk clots when it turns sour. 奶變酸就凝塊。 來自《現代英漢綜合大詞典》
20 lasting IpCz02     
adj.永久的,永恒的;vbl.持續,維持
參考例句:
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的戰爭使美元貶值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我們希望這些糾紛能獲得永久的解決。
21 deterioration yvvxj     
n.退化;惡化;變壞
參考例句:
  • Mental and physical deterioration both occur naturally with age. 隨著年齡的增長,心智和體力自然衰退。
  • The car's bodywork was already showing signs of deterioration. 這輛車的車身已經顯示出了劣化跡象。
22 remodel XVkx1     
v.改造,改型,改變
參考例句:
  • Workmen were hired to remodel and enlarge the farm buildings.雇用了工人來改造和擴建農場建筑。
  • I'll remodel the downstairs bedroom first.我先要裝修樓下那間房間。
23 buffer IxYz0B     
n.起緩沖作用的人(或物),緩沖器;vt.緩沖
參考例句:
  • A little money can be a useful buffer in time of need.在急需時,很少一點錢就能解燃眉之急。
  • Romantic love will buffer you against life's hardships.浪漫的愛會減輕生活的艱辛。
24 degradation QxKxL     
n.降級;低落;退化;陵削;降解;衰變
參考例句:
  • There are serious problems of land degradation in some arid zones.在一些干旱地帶存在嚴重的土地退化問題。
  • Gambling is always coupled with degradation.賭博總是與墮落相聯系。
25 glucose Fyiyz     
n.葡萄糖
參考例句:
  • I gave him an extra dose of glucose to pep him up.我給他多注射了一劑葡萄糖以增強他的活力。
  • The doctor injected glucose into his patient's veins.醫生將葡萄糖注入病人的靜脈。
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