沃特福德vs莱斯特城: 沃特福德vs南安普顿

2013年經濟學人 噪音污染 Noise pollution

時間:2019-12-02 08:46來源:互聯網 提供網友:nan   字體: [ ]
特別聲明:本欄目內容均從網絡收集或者網友提供,供僅參考試用,我們無法保證內容完整和正確。如果資料損害了您的權益,請與站長聯系,我們將及時刪除并致以歉意。
    (單詞翻譯:雙擊或拖選)

沃特福德vs南安普顿 www.siuceg.com.cn  

Finance and Economics;Noise pollution: Shhh!

財經;噪音污染:噓!

Why quiet carriages don't work, and how they might be made to

讓車廂安靜緣何行不通,如何才能靜下來?

Quiet carriages on trains are a nice idea: travellers voluntarily switch phones to silent, turn stereos off and keep chatter1 to a minimum. In reality, there is usually at least one inane2 babbler to break the silence.

讓火車車廂安安靜靜是個不錯的想法:旅客們自覺地把手機調成靜音,關掉音響,連閑聊都盡量小聲。而在現實中,車廂里至少得冒出個蠢透了的話癆來打破這份安靜。

A couple of problems prevent peaceful trips. First, there is a sorting problem: some passengers end up in the quiet carriage by accident and are not aware of the rules. Second, there is a commitment problem: noise is sometimes made by travellers who choose the quiet carriage but find an important call hard to ignore.

幾個問題常阻擾你享受寧靜的旅途。你首先要面對分挑車廂的問題:常有一些旅客莫名其妙地跑進了一節安靜的車廂,并對里邊的規定渾然不知。其次,你還得留意一個承諾問題:一些旅客原本想靜靜地呆在車廂,但有時他們會因自己必須接一通重要的電話而發出聲響。

The train operators are trying to find answers. Trains in Queensland, Australia, are having permanent signs added to show exactly what is expected; a British operator has invested in signal-jamming technology to prevent phone calls. Microeconomics suggests another approach: putting a price on noise.

列車的駕駛員們正努力尋求保持車廂安靜的方法。澳大利亞昆士蘭的列車內就附有若干標識,明確提醒人們保持安靜;英國的一名駕駛員購進信號干擾器以屏蔽列車上的通話。微觀經濟學則另辟蹊徑地提出了一個方案:讓人們為噪音埋單。

Fining people for making a din3 would surely dissuade4 the polluter and is a neat solution in theory, but it requires costly5 monitoring and enforcement. Another tack6 would be to use prices to separate quiet and noisy passengers—in effect, creating a market for silence. A simple idea would be to sell access to the quiet carriage as an optional extra when the ticket is bought. Making the quiet coach both an active choice and a costly one would dissuade many of those who do not value a peaceful ride.

理論上講,向那些吵吵鬧鬧的旅客收取??釵摶苫崛白杷俏鴣澄鵡?,不失為一個干凈利落的方法。但施行起來則需高昂的監管和執行費用。另一方案是將安靜的旅客和嘈雜的旅客分離開來——實質上就是為安靜創造一個市場。只需在售票時為安靜車廂額外收費,就可輕松實現這一想法。將安靜的車廂成為乘客的主動選擇并收費就會讓很多不珍視安靜旅途的乘客靜下來。

Charging may also solve the commitment problem. This is particularly tricky7, as attitudes to noise can change during the journey. Some passengers would pay the quiet premium8 but still chatter away when some vital news arrives. Schemes that reward the silent—a ratings system among fellow passengers, for example—could help. The idea is that losing your hard-won reputation offsets9 the short-term gain from using the phone. But such a system also fails the simplicity10 test.

收費或許同時能解決承諾問題。因為乘客對待嘈雜聲的態度可能在旅途中發生變化,這就使得收費變得頗有難度。有的乘客可能為享受安靜的車廂而支付了附加費用,但是他仍會在聽到一些重大新聞的時候打開話匣子,暢聊起來?;蛐?,在旅客中設立一個評級體系來獎勵那些安靜的人們或許會有所幫助。這個主意是,用來之不易的聲譽來彌補因使用電話而產生的短期收益。但這樣一個系統過于復雜。

A 2010 book by George Akerlof and Rachel Kranton argues that “norms”—feelings about how everyone should behave—also play a role in decision-making. Charging a price, even if just a token amount, means the quiet carriage becomes a service that fellow passengers have bought, not just a preference they have expressed. Perhaps different norms would come into play, encouraging calm. If not, a personal bubble is always an option: noise-cancelling headphones start at around $50.

喬治·阿克洛夫和雷切爾·克蘭頓曾于2010年撰書稱“行文準則”——人們對每一個體應如何表現的感受——在做決定時扮演著重要的角色。收一些費用,哪怕是象征性的一點點,意味著安靜的車廂成為了人們所購買的一項服務,而不單是乘客偏愛安靜的表現。各種不同的行為準則也許會發揮作用,鼓勵人們保持車廂安靜。若效果不佳,一點個人空間從來不失為一良策——畢竟消音耳機的起價僅約50美元。


點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 chatter BUfyN     
vi./n.喋喋不休;短促尖叫;(牙齒)打戰
參考例句:
  • Her continuous chatter vexes me.她的喋喋不休使我煩透了。
  • I've had enough of their continual chatter.我已厭煩了他們喋喋不休的閑談。
2 inane T4mye     
adj.空虛的,愚蠢的,空洞的
參考例句:
  • She started asking me inane questions.她開始問我愚蠢的問題。
  • Such comments are inane because they don't help us solve our problem.這種評論純屬空洞之詞,不能幫助我們解決問題。
3 din nuIxs     
n.喧鬧聲,嘈雜聲
參考例句:
  • The bustle and din gradually faded to silence as night advanced.隨著夜越來越深,喧鬧聲逐漸沉寂。
  • They tried to make themselves heard over the din of the crowd.他們力圖讓自己的聲音蓋過人群的喧鬧聲。
4 dissuade ksPxy     
v.勸阻,阻止
參考例句:
  • You'd better dissuade him from doing that.你最好勸阻他別那樣干。
  • I tried to dissuade her from investing her money in stocks and shares.我曾設法勸她不要投資于股票交易。
5 costly 7zXxh     
adj.昂貴的,價值高的,豪華的
參考例句:
  • It must be very costly to keep up a house like this.維修這么一幢房子一定很昂貴。
  • This dictionary is very useful,only it is a bit costly.這本詞典很有用,左不過貴了些。
6 tack Jq1yb     
n.大頭釘;假縫,粗縫
參考例句:
  • He is hammering a tack into the wall to hang a picture.他正往墻上釘一枚平頭釘用來掛畫。
  • We are going to tack the map on the wall.我們打算把這張地圖釘在墻上。
7 tricky 9fCzyd     
adj.狡猾的,奸詐的;(工作等)棘手的,微妙的
參考例句:
  • I'm in a rather tricky position.Can you help me out?我的處境很棘手,你能幫我嗎?
  • He avoided this tricky question and talked in generalities.他回避了這個非常微妙的問題,只做了個籠統的表述。
8 premium EPSxX     
n.加付款;贈品;adj.高級的;售價高的
參考例句:
  • You have to pay a premium for express delivery.寄快遞你得付額外費用。
  • Fresh water was at a premium after the reservoir was contaminated.在水庫被污染之后,清水便因稀而貴了。
9 offsets 831bd6d82461a6164f50e583f8749188     
n.開端( offset的名詞復數 );出發v.抵消( offset的第三人稱單數 );補償;(為了比較的目的而)把…并列(或并置);為(管道等)裝支管
參考例句:
  • The following paragraphs deal with intra-source offsets and the so-called \"bubble\" concept. 下面討論污染源內部的補償和所謂的“泡泡”概念。 來自英漢非文學 - 環境法 - 環境法
  • The preceding paragraphs were concerned with inter-source offsets. 前文牽涉到污染源之間的補償。 來自英漢非文學 - 環境法 - 環境法
10 simplicity Vryyv     
n.簡單,簡易;樸素;直率,單純
參考例句:
  • She dressed with elegant simplicity.她穿著樸素高雅。
  • The beauty of this plan is its simplicity.簡明扼要是這個計劃的一大特點。
本文本內容來源于互聯網抓取和網友提交,僅供參考,部分欄目沒有內容,如果您有更合適的內容,歡迎點擊提交分享給大家。
------分隔線----------------------------
TAG標簽:   2013年聽力  經濟學人
頂一下
(0)
0%
踩一下
(0)
0%
最新評論 查看所有評論
發表評論 查看所有評論
請自覺遵守互聯網相關的政策法規,嚴禁發布色情、暴力、反動的言論。
評價:
表情:
驗證碼:
聽力搜索
推薦頻道
論壇新貼
? 6号彩票首页 单机麻将四人不联网 科创板赚钱么 wow双采赚钱不2017 如意娱乐网址 如何依靠电子技术赚钱 轩辕传奇2现在好赚钱吗 大无限彩票苹果 做输入法 如何赚钱 晚上在家可以做些什么赚钱 ABC彩票游戏 女生让我努力赚钱 如何拉菜跑农村赚钱 股票讲师的赚钱方法 真人捕鱼王 赚钱技法暴富